My wife is a US citizen who lives outside the US. We were married in July and she was here for only 21 days. She doesn’t have health insurance and under the residency requirement, she is exempt. However she has to come back to the US in November and will likely be here for more than a month. That means she would have been outside the US for less than 330 days this year. Does she need to get health insurance as soon as she arrives and if she does apply, will she get it right away? And if she does not, does she pay the penalty for only the months she was in the US without health coverage?