For 2015: if I elect to be uninsured but my husband remains insured through his employer, what will my penalty be based on (I’m unable to participate in my husband’s health plans and my own employer’s health plans are too expensive)? Will it be 2% of just my income or our income combined, and will we have to file our taxes separately?
If employer coverage would cost more than 8% of your household income then you can claim an affordability exemption. If your employer offers a plan that costs more than 9.5% of household income then you can have them fill out an employer coverage tool and use the Marketplace.
Since February 15th is the last day to get covered each year you'll want to create an application ASAP to ensure you have an account set-up before the deadline.
The fee itself is also based on household income. It's a per-month fee for every month you don't have coverage or an exemption. There is most likely a health coverage option out there for you, and the Health Insurance Marketplace is a surefire way to find out your options.
Learn more about how the fee and exemptions work.
The best way to find out if you qualify for an affordability exemption is by filling out the worksheet on page 10 of the 8965 – Exemptions worksheet. It is possible for one family member to qualify for an exemption, but not the other one.